CarbonData BloomFilter Index

Index Management

Creating BloomFilter Index

ON TABLE main_table (city,name)
AS 'bloomfilter'
PROPERTIES ('BLOOM_SIZE'='640000', 'BLOOM_FPP'='0.00001')

Dropping Specified Index

ON [TABLE] main_table

Showing all Indexes on this table

ON [TABLE] main_table

NOTE: Keywords given inside [] is optional.

Disable Index

The index by default is enabled. To support tuning on query, we can disable a specific index during query to observe whether we can gain performance enhancement from it. This is effective only for current session.

// disable the index
SET carbon.index.visible.dbName.tableName.indexName = false
// enable the index
SET carbon.index.visible.dbName.tableName.indexName = true

BloomFilter Index Introduction

A Bloom filter is a space-efficient probabilistic data structure that is used to test whether an element is a member of a set. Carbondata introduced BloomFilter as an index to enhance the performance of querying with precise value. It is well suitable for queries that do precise matching on high cardinality columns(such as Name/ID). Internally, CarbonData maintains a BloomFilter per blocklet for each index column to indicate that whether a value of the column is in this blocklet. Just like the other indexes, BloomFilter index is managed along with main tables by CarbonData. User can create BloomFilter index on specified columns with specified BloomFilter configurations such as size and probability.

For instance, main table called index_test which is defined as:

CREATE TABLE index_test (
  id string,
  name string,
  age int,
  city string,
  country string)
STORED AS carbondata

In the above example, id and name are high cardinality columns and we always query on id and name with precise value. since id is in the sort_columns and it is ordered, query on it will be fast because CarbonData can skip all the irrelative blocklets. But queries on name may be bad since the blocklet minmax may not help, because in each blocklet the range of the value of name may be the same -- all from A* to z*. In this case, user can create a BloomFilter Index on column name. Moreover, user can also create a BloomFilter Index on the sort_columns. This is useful if user has too many segments and the range of the value of sort_columns are almost the same.

User can create BloomFilter Index using the Create Index DDL:

ON TABLE index_test (name,id)
AS 'bloomfilter'
PROPERTIES ('BLOOM_SIZE'='640000', 'BLOOM_FPP'='0.00001', 'BLOOM_COMPRESS'='true')

Here, (name,id) are INDEX_COLUMNS. Carbondata will generate BloomFilter index on these columns. Queries on these columns are usually like 'COL = VAL'.

Properties for BloomFilter Index

Property Is Required Default Value Description
BLOOM_SIZE NO 640000 This value is internally used by BloomFilter as the number of expected insertions, it will affect the size of BloomFilter index. Since each blocklet has a BloomFilter here, so the default value is the approximate distinct index values in a blocklet assuming that each blocklet contains 20 pages and each page contains 32000 records. The value should be an integer.
BLOOM_FPP NO 0.00001 This value is internally used by BloomFilter as the False-Positive Probability, it will affect the size of bloomfilter index as well as the number of hash functions for the BloomFilter. The value should be in the range (0, 1). In one test scenario, a 96GB TPCH customer table with bloom_size=320000 and bloom_fpp=0.00001 will result in 18 false positive samples.
BLOOM_COMPRESS NO true Whether to compress the BloomFilter index files.

Loading Data

When loading data to main table, BloomFilter files will be generated for all the index_columns provided in the CREATE statement which contains the blockletId and a BloomFilter for each index column. These index files will be written inside a folder named with Index name inside each segment folders.

Querying Data

User can verify whether a query can leverage BloomFilter Index by executing EXPLAIN command, which will show the transformed logical plan, and thus user can check whether the BloomFilter Index can skip blocklets during the scan. If the Index does not prune blocklets well, you can try to increase the value of property BLOOM_SIZE and decrease the value of property BLOOM_FPP.

Data Management With BloomFilter Index

Data management with BloomFilter Index has no difference with that on Lucene Index. You can refer to the corresponding section in CarbonData Lucene Index

Useful Tips

  • BloomFilter Index is suggested to be created on the high cardinality columns. Query conditions on these columns are always simple equal or in, such as 'col1=XX', 'col1 in (XX, YY)'.
  • We can create multiple BloomFilter Indexes on one table, but we do recommend you to create one BloomFilter Index that contains multiple index columns, because the data loading and query performance will be better.
  • BLOOM_FPP is only the expected number from user, the actual FPP may be worse. If the BloomFilter Index does not work well, you can try to increase BLOOM_SIZE and decrease BLOOM_FPP at the same time. Notice that bigger BLOOM_SIZE will increase the size of index file and smaller BLOOM_FPP will increase runtime calculation while performing query.
  • '0' skipped blocklets of BloomFilter Index in explain output indicates that BloomFilter Index does not prune better than Main Index. (For example since the data is not ordered, a specific value may be contained in many blocklets. In this case, bloom may not work better than Main Index.) If this occurs very often, it means that current BloomFilter is useless. You can disable or drop it. Sometimes we cannot see any pruning result about BloomFilter Index in the explain output, this indicates that the previous Index has pruned all the blocklets and there is no need to continue pruning.
  • In some scenarios, the BloomFilter Index may not enhance the query performance significantly but if it can reduce the number of spark task, there is still a chance that BloomFilter Index can enhance the performance for concurrent query.
  • Note that BloomFilter Index will decrease the data loading performance and may cause slight storage expansion (for index file).